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Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery

Introduction


Laparoscopic colectomy was first performed in the year 1991. Since then, a great deal of studies has been done which successfully authenticate it now to be an advanced approach in the treatment of many colorectal diseases via surgical management. An increased frequency of Laparoscopic colon resections are being performed throughout the world, however, the application of minimally invasive techniques in the field of colorectal surgery has lagged behind its use in other surgical fields.
Minimally invasive or laparoscopic surgery is a key area of focus for Metro Group of Hospitals. The centre is well equipped with state-of-the-art techniques and instruments for performing laparoscopic surgery. The unit has to its acclamation one of the first gall stone surgery in ‘Situs Inversus’ patient in New Zealand.

What is laparoscopic colorectal surgery?


Laparoscopic surgery, also known as keyhole surgery requires four or five small (about one-centimetre) incisions to be placed in the abdomen (tummy). It involves the use of specialized telescope camera which is inserted through one of these small incisions. This allows the surgeon to get a magnified image of the internal abdominal organs on a monitor. Additional cuts are meant for insertion of several other laproscopic instruments.

What are the advantages of laparoscopic colorectal surgery?


The type of procedure and overall condition of the patient dictate the results. Common advantages include:
· less pain and scarring after the operation
· a shorter stay in hospital
· a quicker return to normal activities including drinking, eating and bowel function

Arthroscopy usually takes between 30 minutes and 2 hours, depending on the course of action.

What special preparations need to be done before surgery?


To take this surgical procedure, the patient needs to undergo the same investigations and tests as those performed in an open surgery. This examination is done to substantiate the diagnosis and extent of the disease and to evaluate how appropriate the proposed treatment is for the patient.

How is laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed?


Laparoscopic surgery is a telescopic method. First, a cannula (hollow, needle-like tube) is placed into the peritoneal cavity and carbon-dioxide gas is passed through it. This causes the abdominal cavity to bloat thus, allowing the surgeon to place a laparoscope (a narrow telescope joined to a video camera). The video camera presents an enlarged image of the internal abdominal organs on a television screen. Several other cuts are placed to make ways (ports) to place specialized operating instruments inside so the resection can be carried out. In cases where a bowel specimen is needed to be removed, a cut of 8 to 10 cm may be made to complete the procedure. The surgery usually takes two to three hours.

What should be expected after surgery?


Immediately after the completion of the surgical procedure, the patient is supplied with oxygen via an oxygen mask. A cannula is dripped into a vein in one of the arms to supply intravenous fluids. A catheter is placed in the bladder to aid in draining urine. And, certain medications are prescribed to alleviate pain. Later, the patient is given a modified diet, starting with liquids, which is gradually replaced by solid foods.